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Spain’s colonization plans for her far northern “New World” territories, later to encompass Arizona and the American Southwest, were frustrated by the Apache people who held dominance over this area for generations. Procedures devised in Madrid and Mexico City to eliminate the Apache menace became exercises in futility that gave way to a program of custody christened Establecimientos de Paz (Peace Camps). The plan was to provide material goods to those Apaches who would give up raiding and settle in sight of selected presidios. One such peace camp was located north of the presidio at Tucson. This study group presents an overview of how the peace camps came about, their underlying development and their eventual disbanding following Mexico’s independence from Spain.
Instructor: John Attardi
John relocated to Green Valley upon retiring from a thirty-year career in business management. With a natural curiosity about his surroundings and their historical significance, John immediately began studies of southern Arizona’s Spanish colonial past which led to joining the first graduating class of docents at Canoa Ranch. His essays on Spanish/Mexican land grant procedures and Spain’s material assistance in America’s War of Independence were published in Tumacacori National Historic Park newsletter and El Presidio Real Museum in Tucson. He’s a member of the Tucson Corral of Westerners, Old Pueblo Archaeology Center, and Southwest Mission Research Center.
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